Probiotics have become part of our everyday life. We eat fermented foods that contain probiotics such as yogurt, kefir, sourdough bread, kimchi, pickles, some cheeses, and more. Many of us also take probiotic supplements on a daily basis. But when it comes to probiotics for weight loss, do they really work? Let’s find out in this article!
Why Probiotics are Good for the Body
Probiotics are live microorganisms, a.k.a. good bacteria, known for their health benefits on the host. Regularly taking probiotics helps maintain a positive balance in the gut microbiota (1) and enhance our natural immunity and adjust pathogen-induced inflammation (2).
Moreover, they may also improve constipation problems (3), and have positive effects on allergies, gastrointestinal diseases, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcohol fatty liver disease (4). Lately, there has been an increase in the number of studies investigating the effectiveness and role of probiotics for weight loss.
Want to know which is the right probiotics for you? Here are 7 factors for choosing the best probiotics.
Mechanisms Involved in Probiotics for Weight Loss
A 2019 study tried to analyze some of the possible mechanisms explaining the association between gut bacteria and obesity. Researchers highlighted that gut microbiota is involved in obesity through hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters that control food intake and regulation of energy balance, dietary carbohydrate fermentation, lipogenesis, and excess energy storage (5).
Research on the Association Between Probiotics and Weight Loss
Some of you may wonder what kind of relation probiotics can have with weight loss since losing weight is mostly about getting a calorie deficit (calories consumed minus calories burned). However, there are studies showing that obese people have different gut microbiota composition compared to lean individuals. And fecal bacteria can play a role in modulating energy metabolism and body weight.
According to a 2018 review, several studies have reported that the probiotic effect on weight loss and metabolism is strain-specific and that only some of the species included in the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera are effective (6).
In a 2010 study, researchers investigated the role of probiotics on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures in adults with obese tendencies. This study highlighted that the subjects who were supplemented with probiotics had a 4.6% and a 3.3% decrease in their abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, respectively. In addition, body weight was reduced by 1.4% and the body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% (7).
In 2013, a group of scientists from Switzerland and Canada studied the impact of probiotics supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese individuals for a period of 24 weeks. The study participants were divided into groups of men and women that were either taking Probiotics or Placebo. During the first 12 weeks they were subjected to moderate energy restriction and on the remaining 12 weeks, they were on weight maintenance. Here’s a summary of their findings:
- The mean weight loss in women in the Probiotics group was significantly higher than in women in the Placebo group. But the results were almost similar amongst the men in both groups.
- During the weight maintenance period, women in the Probiotics group continued to lose body weight and fat mass. On the other hand, women in the Placebo group noticed weight gain and increase in fat mass. For the men groups, differences were not noted during the same period.
This particular study showed that there might be gender differences in the response to probiotic supplementation. BUT since it was only about one specific probiotic strain, we cannot generalize that all strains may benefit more women, and it is only one study claiming so (8).
The above-mentioned benefits provided by probiotic supplementation were confirmed in a 2016 review which reported that the manipulation of gut microbiota can be a strategy for obesity treatment. In this study, researchers mentioned that probiotic therapy is safe and well tolerated with no adverse effects, and is appropriate for long-term use.
Moreover, the conclusion of this study highlighted that the modulation of gut microbiota by probiotic treatment can play a positive role in body weight management, influence on glucose and fat metabolism, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce chronic systemic inflammation, all of which are common characteristics in obesity (9).
In 2019, a group of Chinese scientists conducted a systematic review on the potential role of probiotics in controlling excess weight in adults and its associated metabolic parameters. They found out that there was a significant weight reduction in the groups of participants who took probiotics. In addition, researchers noticed a significant reduction in fat percentage and fat mass in healthy adults. Findings regarding the group of diabetics also showed that supplementing with probiotics could improve glucose metabolism (10).
The beneficial role of probiotics for weight loss was also investigated by Dr. Heidi Borgeraas and her colleagues. They concluded that probiotics caused significant reductions in body weight and fat percentage compared to the no-probiotic placebo group. However, the effect of probiotics on fat mass wasn’t all that significant, perhaps due to the limited duration of interventions which ranged from 3 to 12 weeks. These results may improve with a longer period of probiotic supplementation (11).
In a 2019 published study, researchers investigated the interactive effects of probiotic supplementation and weight loss program on anthropometric and metabolic syndrome indices among overweight coronary artery disease patients. They reported that the weight loss diet plus probiotics supplementation resulted in superior results concerning the cardiovascular risk factors compared to the weight loss program alone (14).
Perinatal Probiotics Supplementation and Child Body Weight
A 2010 study evaluated the impact of perinatal probiotic supplementation on childhood growth patterns and overweight development during a 10-year follow-up. Researchers concluded that early gut bacteria modulation with probiotics play a role in the development and health of the child by restraining excessive weight gain during the first 12 months of life (12).
An Animal Study on Probiotics
In addition to human studies that show important findings, there are also very promising animal studies that will soon be followed by similar human studies. For instance, a promising study showed that diet-induced obese mice supplemented with Bacillus probiotics were protected against metabolic disorders (13).
Final Thoughts on Using Probiotics for Weight Loss
Lifestyle modifications such as diet, exercise, and balanced sleep still remain the most important and effective therapies for obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, lifestyle modification results aren’t satisfying and obesity is still growing worldwide.
According to the studies we’ve presented in this article, therapeutic interventions with probiotics may offer novel treatments for obesity. Some specific probiotic strains such as the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera seem to be more effective than others. Further research is needed though to clarify all the probiotic species that are beneficial for weight loss.
Since probiotics for adults, women, and kids are safe, we can freely add them to our daily diet to promote our wellbeing and to provide our body the extra ingredient needed to achieve our weight loss goals. When probiotics are combined with a balanced diet, regular exercise, and quality sleep, you will manage to improve not only your body weight, but also experience a happier life!
(1) Kim, D., Yoo, S. and Kim, W., 2016. Gut microbiota in autoimmunity: potential for clinical applications. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 39(11), pp.1565-1576.
(2) Yan, F. and Polk, D., 2011. Probiotics and immune health. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 27(6), pp.496-501.
(3) Dimidi, E., Christodoulides, S., Fragkos, K., Scott, S. and Whelan, K., 2014. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(4), pp.1075-1084.
(4) Markowiak, P. and Śliżewska, K., 2017. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health. Nutrients, 9(9), p.1021.
(5) Mazloom, K., Siddiqi, I. and Covasa, M., 2019. Probiotics: How Effective Are They in the Fight against Obesity?. Nutrients, 11(2), p.258.
(6) Brusaferro, A., Cozzali, R., Orabona, C., Biscarini, A., Farinelli, E., Cavalli, E., Grohmann, U., Principi, N. and Esposito, S., 2018. Is It Time to Use Probiotics to Prevent or Treat Obesity?. Nutrients, 10(11), p.1613.
(7) Kadooka, Y., Sato, M., Imaizumi, K., Ogawa, A., Ikuyama, K., Akai, Y., Okano, M., Kagoshima, M. and Tsuchida, T., 2010. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(6), pp.636-643.
(8) Sanchez, M., Darimont, C., Drapeau, V., Emady-Azar, S., Lepage, M., Rezzonico, E., Ngom-Bru, C., Berger, B., Philippe, L., Ammon-Zuffrey, C., Leone, P., Chevrier, G., St-Amand, E., Marette, A., Doré, J. and Tremblay, A., 2013. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(8), pp.1507-1519.
(9) Kobyliak, N., Conte, C., Cammarota, G., Haley, A., Styriak, I., Gaspar, L., Fusek, J., Rodrigo, L. and Kruzliak, P., 2016. Probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity: a critical view. Nutrition & Metabolism, 13(1).
(10) Wang, Z., Xin, S., Ding, L., Ding, W., Hou, Y., Liu, C. and Zhang, X., 2019. The Potential Role of Probiotics in Controlling Overweight/Obesity and Associated Metabolic Parameters in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019, pp.1-14.
(11) Borgeraas, H., Johnson, L., Skattebu, J., Hertel, J. and Hjelmesaeth, J., 2017. Effects of probiotics on body weight, body mass index, fat mass and fat percentage in subjects with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 19(2), pp.219-232.
(12) Luoto, R., Kalliomäki, M., Laitinen, K. and Isolauri, E., 2010. The impact of perinatal probiotic intervention on the development of overweight and obesity: follow-up study from birth to 10 years. International Journal of Obesity, 34(10), pp.1531-1537.
(13) Kim, B., Kwon, J., Kim, M., Park, H., Ji, Y., Holzapfel, W. and Hyun, C., 2018. Protective effects of Bacillus probiotics against high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice. PLOS ONE, 13(12)
(14) Moludi, J., Alizadeh, M., Behrooz, M., Maleki, V., Seyed Mohammadzad, M. and Golmohammadi, A., 2019. Interactive Effect of Probiotics Supplementation and Weight Loss Diet on Metabolic Syndrome Features in Patients With Coronary Artery Diseases: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine